Publications by Year: 2016


Safikhani Z, El-Hachem N, Smirnov P, Freeman M, Goldenberg A, Birkbak N, Beck A, Aerts H, Quackenbush J, Haibe-Kains B. Safikhani et al. reply. Nature 2016;540(7631):E11-E12.
Safikhani Z, El-Hachem N, Smirnov P, Freeman M, Goldenberg A, Birkbak N, Beck A, Aerts H, Quackenbush J, Haibe-Kains B. Safikhani et al. reply. Nature 2016;540(7631):E6-E8.
Oh H, Eliassen H, Wang M, Smith-Warner S, Beck A, Schnitt S, Collins L, Connolly J, Montaser-Kouhsari L, Polyak K, Tamimi R. Expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and Ki67 in normal breast tissue in relation to subsequent risk of breast cancer. NPJ Breast Cancer 2016;2
Although expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and cell proliferation marker Ki67 serve as predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancers, little is known about their roles in normal breast tissue. Here in a nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Studies (90 cases, 297 controls), we evaluated their expression levels in normal breast epithelium in relation to subsequent breast cancer risk among women with benign breast disease. Tissue microarrays were constructed using cores obtained from benign biopsies containing normal terminal duct lobular units and immunohistochemical stained for these markers. We found PR and Ki67 expression was non-significantly but positively associated with subsequent breast cancer risk, whereas ER expression was non-significantly inversely associated. After stratifying by lesion subtype, Ki67 was significantly associated with higher risk among women with proliferative lesions with atypical hyperplasia. However, given the small sample size, further studies are required to confirm these results.
Safikhani Z, El-Hachem N, Smirnov P, Freeman M, Goldenberg A, Birkbak N, Beck A, Aerts H, Quackenbush J, Haibe-Kains B. Safikhani et al. reply. Nature 2016;540(7631):E2-E4.
German N, Yoon H, Yusuf R, Murphy P, Finley L, Laurent G, Haas W, Satterstrom K, Guarnerio J, Zaganjor E, Santos D, Pandolfi PP, Beck A, Gygi S, Scadden D, Kaelin W, Haigis M. PHD3 Loss in Cancer Enables Metabolic Reliance on Fatty Acid Oxidation via Deactivation of ACC2. Mol Cell 2016;63(6):1006-20.
While much research has examined the use of glucose and glutamine by tumor cells, many cancers instead prefer to metabolize fats. Despite the pervasiveness of this phenotype, knowledge of pathways that drive fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in cancer is limited. Prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins hydroxylate substrate proline residues and have been linked to fuel switching. Here, we reveal that PHD3 rapidly triggers repression of FAO in response to nutrient abundance via hydroxylation of acetyl-coA carboxylase 2 (ACC2). We find that PHD3 expression is strongly decreased in subsets of cancer including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is linked to a reliance on fat catabolism regardless of external nutrient cues. Overexpressing PHD3 limits FAO via regulation of ACC2 and consequently impedes leukemia cell proliferation. Thus, loss of PHD3 enables greater utilization of fatty acids but may also serve as a metabolic and therapeutic liability by indicating cancer cell susceptibility to FAO inhibition.
Henry W, Hendrickson D, Beca F, Glass B, Lindahl-Allen M, He L, Ji Z, Struhl K, Beck A, Rinn J, Toker A. LINC00520 is induced by Src, STAT3, and PI3K and plays a functional role in breast cancer. Oncotarget 2016;7(50):81981-81994.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in normal cellular homeostasis as well as pathophysiological conditions, including cancer. Here we performed global gene expression profiling of mammary epithelial cells transformed by oncogenic v-Src, and identified a large subset of uncharacterized lncRNAs potentially involved in breast cancer development. Specifically, our analysis revealed a novel lncRNA, LINC00520 that is upregulated upon ectopic expression of oncogenic v-Src, in a manner that is dependent on the transcription factor STAT3. Similarly, LINC00520 is also increased in mammary epithelial cells transformed by oncogenic PI3K and its expression is decreased upon knockdown of mutant PIK3CA. Additional expression profiling highlight that LINC00520 is elevated in a subset of human breast carcinomas, with preferential enrichment in the basal-like molecular subtype. ShRNA-mediated depletion of LINC00520 results in decreased cell migration and loss of invasive structures in 3D. RNA sequencing analysis uncovers several genes that are differentially expressed upon ectopic expression of LINC00520, a significant subset of which are also induced in v-Src-transformed MCF10A cells. Together, these findings characterize LINC00520 as a lncRNA that is regulated by oncogenic Src, PIK3CA and STAT3, and which may contribute to the molecular etiology of breast cancer.
Warner E, Hu R, Collins L, Beck A, Schnitt S, Rosner B, Eliassen H, Michels K, Willett W, Tamimi R. Height and Body Size in Childhood, Adolescence, and Young Adulthood and Breast Cancer Risk According to Molecular Subtype in the Nurses' Health Studies. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2016;9(9):732-8.
Height and body size in childhood and young adulthood have been consistently associated with breast cancer risk; whether associations differ across molecular subtypes is unclear. In a pooled analysis of the Nurses' Health Studies, we prospectively examined the association of four exposures: height, body mass index (BMI) at the age of 18 years, childhood and adolescent somatotypes, with breast cancer risk according to molecular subtypes defined by immunohistochemical markers. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We identified 2,983 luminal A, 1,281 luminal B, 318 HER2-enriched, 408 basal-like, and 128 unclassified tumors. Height was positively associated with all subtypes (Pheterogeneity = 0.78). BMI at the age of 18 (Pheterogeneity = 0.001), childhood (Pheterogeneity = 0.51), and adolescent somatotype (Pheterogeneity = 0.046) were inversely associated, but with differences in magnitude of association. BMI at the age of 18 of ≥25 kg/m(2) (compared with 20-21.9 kg/m(2)) was associated with a 52% decreased risk of HER2-enriched (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26-0.91; Ptrend